Third Bardo: The Period of Re-entry
(Sidpa Bardo)




If, in the second Bardo, the voyager
is incapable of holding on to the knowledge that the
peaceful and wrathful visions were projections of his own
mind, but became attracted to or frightened by one or more
of them, he will enter the Third Bardo. In this period he
struggles to regain routine reality and his ego; the
Tibetans call it the Bardo of “seeking rebirth.” It is the
period in which the consciousness makes the transition from
transcendent reality to the reality of ordinary waking life.
The teachings of this manual are of the utmost importance if
one wishes to make a peaceful and enlightened re-entry and
avoid a violent or unpleasant one.

In the original Bardo Thodol the aim
of the teachings is “liberation,” i.e., release from the
cycle of birth and death. Interpreted esoterically, this
means that the aim is to remain at the stage of perfect
illumination and not to return to social game


Only persons of extremely advanced
spiritual development are able to accomplish this, by
exercising the Transference Principle at the moment of
ego-death. For average persons who undertake a psychedelic
voyage, the return to game reality is inevitable. Such
persons can and should use this part of the manual for the
following purposes:


to free themselves from Third Bardo

to prolong the session, thus
assuring a maximum degree of illumination;

to select a favorable re-entry,
i.e., to return to a wiser and more peaceful post-session

Although no definite time estimates
can be given, the Tibetans estimate that about 50% of the
entire psychedelic experience is spent in the Third Bardo by
most normal people. At times, as indicated in the
Introduction, someone may move straight to the re-entry
period if he is unprepared for or frightened by the ego-loss
experiences of the first two Bardos.


The types of re-entry made can
profoundly color the person’s subsequent attitudes and
feelings about himself and the world, for weeks or even
months afterwards. A session which has been predominantly
negative and fearful can still be turned to great advantage
and much can be learned from it, provided the re-entry is
positive and highly conscious. Conversely, a happy and
revelatory experience can be made valueless by a fearful or
negative re-entry.


The key instructions of the Third
Bardo are: (1) do nothing, stay calm, passive and relaxed,
no matter what happens; and (2) recognize where you are. If
you do not recognize you will be driven by fear to make a
premature and unfavorable re-entry. Only by recognizing can
you maintain that state of calm, passive concentration
necessary for a favorable re-entry. That is why so many
recognition-points are given. If you fail on one, it is
always possible, up to the very end, to succeed on another.
Hence these teachings should be read carefully and
remembered well.


In the following sections some of
the characteristic Third Bardo experiences are described. In
Part IV instructions are given appropriate to each section.
At this stage in a psychedelic session the voyager is
usually capable of telling the guide verbally what he is
experiencing, so that the appropriate sections can be read.
A wise guide can often sense the precise nature of the ego’s
struggle without words. The voyager will usually not
experience all of these states, but only one or some of
them; or sometimes the return to reality can take completely
new and unusual turns. In such a case the general
instructions for the Third Bardo should be emphasized Third
Bardo: Preliminary Instructions.


I. General Description of the Third


Normally, the person descends, step
by step, into lower (more constricted) states of
consciousness. Each step downwards may be preceded by a
swooning into unconsciousness. Occasionally the descent may
be sudden, and the person will find himself jolted back to a
vision of reality which by contrast with the preceding
phases seems dull, static, hard, angular, ugly and
puppet-like. Such changes can induce fear and horror and he
may struggle desperately to regain familiar reality. He may
get trapped into irrational or even bestial perspectives
which then dominate his entire consciousness. These narrow
primitive elements stem from aspects of his personal history
which are usually repressed. The more enlightened
consciousness of the first two Bardos and the civilized
elements of ordinary waking life are shelved in favor of
powerful, obsessive primitive impulses, which in fact are
merely faded and incoherent instinctual parts of the
voyager’s total personality. The suggestibility of Bardo
consciousness makes them seem all-powerful and

On the other hand, the voyager may
also feel that he possesses supernormal powers of perception
and movement, that he can perform miracles, extraordinary
feats of bodily control etc. The Tibetan book definitely
attributes paranormal faculties to the consciousness of the
Bardo voyager and explains it as due to the fact that the
Bardo-consciousness encompasses future elements as well as
past. Hence clairvoyance, telepathy, ESP, etc. are said to
be possible. Objective evidence does not indicate whether
this sense of increased perceptiveness is real or illusory.
We therefore leave this as an open question, to be decided
by empirical evidence.


This then is the first recognition
point of the Third Bardo. The feeling of supernormal
perception and performance. Assuming that it is valid, the
manual warns the voyager not to be fascinated by his
heightened powers, and not to exercise them. In yogic
practice, the most advanced of the lamas teach the disciple
not to strive after psychic powers of this nature for their
own sake; for until the disciple is morally fit to use them
wisely, they become a serious impediment to his higher
spiritual development. Not until the selfish, game-involved
nature of man is completely mastered is he safe in using


A second sign of Third Bardo
existence are experiences of panic, torture and persecution.
They are distinguished from the wrathful visions fo the
Second Bardo in that they definitely seem to involve the
person’s own “skin-encapsulated ego.” Mind-controlling
manipulative figures and demons of hideous aspects may be
hallucinated. The form that these torturing demons take will
depend on the person’s cultural background. Where Tibetans
saw demons and beasts of prey, a Westerner may see
impersonal machinery grinding, or depersonalizing and
controlling devices of different futuristic varieties.
Visions of world destruction, dying in space-fiction modes,
and hallucinations of being engulfed by destructive powers
will likewise come; and sounds of the mind-controlling
apparatus, of the “combine’s fog machinery,” of the gears
which move the scenery of the puppet show, of angry
overflowing seas, and of the roaring fire and of fierce
winds springing up, and of mocking laughter.


When these sounds and visions come,
the first impulse will be to flee from them in panic and
terror, not caring where one goes, so long as one goes out.
In psychedelic drug experiences, the person may at this time
plead or demand to be brought “out of it” through antidotes
and tranquillizers. The person may see himself as about to
fall down deep, terrifying precipices. These symbolize the
so-called evil passions which, like narcotic drugs, enslave
and bind mankind to existence in game-networks (sangsara):
anger, lust, stupidity, pride or egoism, jealousy, and
control-power. Such experiences, just as the previous one of
enhanced power, should be regarded as recognizing features
of the Third Bardo. One should neither flee the pain nor
pursue the pleasure. Recognition is all that is necessary –
and recognition depends upon preparation.


A third sign is a kind of restless,
unhappy wandering which may be purely mental or may involve
actual physical movement. The person feels as if driven by
winds (winds of karma) or shunted around mechanically. There
may be brief respites at certain places or scenes in the
“ordinary” human world. Like a person travelling alone at
night along a highway, having his attention arrested by
prominent landmarks, great isolated trees, houses,
bridgeheads, temples, hot-dog stands, etc., the person in
the re-entry period has similar experiences. He may demand
to return to familiar haunts in the human world. But any
such external placation is temporary and soon the restless
wandering will recommence. There may come a desperate desire
to phone or otherwise contact your family, your doctor, your
friends and appeal to them to pull you out of the state.
This desire should be resisted. The guide and the fellow
voyagers can be of best assistance. One should not try to
involve others in one’s hallucinatory world. The attempt
will fail anyway since outsiders are usually unable to
understand what is happening. Again, merely to recognize
these desires as Third Bardo manifestations is already the
first step toward liberation.


A fourth, rather common experience
is the following: the person may feel stupid and full of
incoherent thoughts, whereas everyone else seems to be
perfectly knowing and wise. This leads to feelings of guilt
and inadequacy and in extreme from to the Judgment Vision,
to be described below. This feeling of stupidity is merely
the natural result of the limited perspective under which
the consciousness is operating in this Bardo. Calm, relaxed
acceptance and trust will enable the voyager to win
liberation at this point


Another experience, the fifth
recognizing feature, which is especially impressive when it
occurs suddenly, is the feeling of being dead, cut off from
surrounding life, and full of misery. The person may with a
jolt awake from some trance-like swoon and experience
himself and the others as lifeless robots, performing wooden
meaningless gestures. He may feel that he will never come
back and will lament his miserable state.


Again, such fantasies are to be
recognized as the attempts of the ego to regain control. In
the true state of ego-death, as it occurs in the First or
Second Bardos, such complaints are never uttered.


Sixth, one may have the feeling of
being oppressed or crushed or squeezed into cracks and
crevices amidst rocks and boulders. Or the person may feel
that a kind of metallic net or cage may encompass him. This
symbolizes the attempt prematurely to enter an ego-robot
which is unfitting or unequipped to deal with the expanded
consciousness. Therefore one should relax the panicky desire
to regain an ego.


A Seventh aspect is a kind of grey
twilight-like light suffusing everything, which is in marked
contrast to the brilliantly radiating lights and colors of
the earlier stages of the voyage. Objects, instead of
shining, glowing and vibrating, are now dully colored,
shabby and angular.


The passages Third Bardo:
Preliminary Instructions contain general instructions for
the Third Bardo state and its recognizable features. Any or
all of the passages may be read when the guide senses that
the voyager is beginning to return to the ego.


II. Re-entry Visions


In the preceding section the
symptoms of re-entry were described, the signs that the
voyager is tryihng to regain his ego. In this section are
described visions of the types of re-entry one can

The Tibetan manual conceives of the
voyager as returning eventually to one of six worlds of game
existence (sangsara). That is, the re-entry to the ego can
take place on one of six levels, or as one of six
personality types. Two of these are higher than the normal
human, three are lower. The highest, most illuminated, level
is that of the devas, who are what Westerners would call
saints, sages or divine teachers. They are the most
enlightened people walking the earth. Gautama Buddha, Lao
Tse, Christ. The second level is that of the asuras, who may
be called titans or heroes, people with a more than human
degree of power and vision. The third level is that of most
normal human beings, struggling through game-networks,
occasionally breaking free. The fourth level is that of
primitive and animalistic incarnations. In this category we
have the dog and the cock, symbolic of hyper-sexuality
concomitant with jealousy; the pig, symbolizing lustful
stupidity and uncleanliness; the industrious, hoarding ant;
the insect or worm signifying an earthy or grovelling
disposition; the snake, flashing in anger; the ape, full of
rampaging primitive power; the snarling “wolf of the
steppes;” the bird, soaring freely. Many more could be
enumerated. In all cultures of the world people have adopted
identities in the image of animals. In childhood and in
dreams it is a process familiar to all. The fifth level is
that of neurotics, frustrated lifeless spirits forever
pursuing unsatisfied desires; the sixth and lowest level is
hell or psychosis. Less than one percent of ego-
transcendent experiences end in sainthood or psychosis. Most
persons return to the normal human level.


According to The Tibetan Book of the
Dead, each of the six game worlds or levels of existence is
associated with a characteristic sort of thraldom, from
which non-game experiences give temporary freedom: (1)
existence as a deva, or saint, although more desirable than
the others, is concomitant with an ever-recurring round of
pleasure, free game ecstasy; (2) existence as an asura, or
titan, is concomitant with incessant heroic warfare; (3)
helplessness and slavery are characteristic of animal
existence; (4) torments of unsatisfied needs and wants are
characteristic of the existence of pretas, or unhappy
spirits; (5) the characteristic impediments of human
existence are inertia, smug ignorance, physical or
psychological handicaps or various sorts.


According to the Bardo Thodol, the
level one is detined for is determined by one’s karma.
During the period of the Third Bardo premonitory signs and
visions of the different levels appear, that for which one
is heading appearing most clearly. For example, the voyager
may feel full of godlike power (asuras), or he may feel
himself stirred by primitive or bestial impulses, or he may
experience that all-pervasive frustration of the unhappy
neurotics, or shudder at the tortures of a self-created


The chances of making a favorable
re-entry are increased if the process is allowed to take its
own natural course, without effort or struggle. One should
avoid pursuing or fleeing any of the visions, but meditate
calmly on the knowledge that all levels exist in the Buddha


One can recognize and examine the
signs as they appear and learn a great deal about oneself in
a very short time. Although it is unwise to struggle against
or flee the visions that come in this period, the
Instructions for Re-entry Visions are designed to help the
voyager regain First Bardo transcendence. In this way, if
the person finds himself about to return to a personality or
ego which he finds inappropriate to his new knowledge about
himself, he can, by following the instructions, prevent this
and make a fresh re-entry.


III. The All-Determining Influence
of Thought


Liberation may be obtained, by such
confrontation, even though previously it was not. If,
however, liberation is not obtained even after these
confrontations, further earnest and continued application is

Should you feel attachment to
material possessions, to old games and activities, or if you
get any because other people are still involved in pursuits
that you have renounced, this will affect the psychological
balance in such a way that even if destined to return at a
higher level, you will actually re-enter on a lower level in
the world of unsatisfied spirits (neurosis). On the other
hand, even if you do feel attached to worldly games that you
have renounced, you will not be able to play them, and they
will be of no use to you. Therefore abandon weakness and
attachment to them; cast them away wholly; renounce them
from your heart. No matter who may be enjoying your
possessions, or taking your role, have no feelings of
miserliness or jealousy, but be prepared to renounce them
willingly. Think that you are offering them to your internal
freedom and to your expaned consciousness. Abide in the
feeling of non-attachment, devoid of weakness and


Again, when the activities of the
other members of the session are wrong, careless,
inattentive or distracting, when the agreement or contract
is broken, and when purity of intention is lost by any
participant, and frivolity and laxness take over (all of
which can clearly be seen by the Bardo voyager) you may feel
lack of faith and begin to doubt your beliefs. You will be
able to perceive any anxiety or fear, any selfish actions,
ego-centric conduct and manipulative behavior. You may
think: “Alas! they are playing me false, they have cheated
and deceived.” If you think thus, you will become extremely
depressed, and through great resentment you will acquire
disbelief and loss of faith, instead of affection and humble
trust. Since this affects the psychological balance,
re-entry will certainly be made on an unpleasant


Such thinking will not only be of no
use, but it will do great harm. However improper the
behavior of other, think thus: “What? How can the words of a
Buddha be inappropriate? It is like the reflection of
blemishes on my own face which I see in a mirror; my own
thoughts must be impure. As for these others, they are noble
in body, holy in speech, and the Buddha is within them:
their actions are lessons for me.”


Thus thinking, put your trust in
your companions and exercise sincere love towards them. Then
whatever they do will be to your benefit. The exercise of
that love is very important; do not forget this!


Again, even if you were destined to
return to a lower level and are already going into that
existence, yet through the good deeds of friends, relatives,
participants, learned teachers who devote themselves
wholeheartedly to the correct performance of beneficent
rituals, the delight from your feeling greatly cheered at
seeing them will, by its own virtue, so affect the
psychological balance that even though heading downwards,
you may yet rise to a higher and happier level. Therefore
you should not create selfish thoughts, but exercise pure
affection and humble faith towards all, impartially. This is
highly important. Hence be extremely careful.


The Instructions for the
All-Determing Influence of Thought are useful in any phase
of the Third Bardo, but particularly if the voyager is
reacting with suspicion or resentment to other members of
the group, or to his own friends and relatives.


IV. Judgment Visions


The judgment vision may come: the
Third Bardo blame game. “Your good genius will count up your
good deeds with white pebbles, the evil genius the evil
deeds with black pebbles.” A judgment scene is a central
part of many religious systems, and the vision can assume
various forms. Westerners are most likely to see it in the
well-known Christian version. The Tibetans give a
psychological interpretation to thisas to all the other
visions. The Judge, or Lord of Death, symbolizes conscience
itself in its stern aspect of impartiality and love of
righteousness. The “Mirror of Karma” (the Christian Judgment
Book), consulted by the Judge, is memory. Different parts of
the ego will come forward, some offering lame excuses to
meet accusations, others ascribing baser motives to various
deeds, counting apparently neutral deeds among the black
ones; still others offering justifications or requests for
pardon. The mirror of memory reflects clearly; lying and
subterfuge will be of no avail. Be not frightened, tell no
lies, face truch fearlessly.

No you may imagine yourself
surrounded by figures who wish to torment, torture or
ridicule you (the “Executive Furies of the Robot Lord of
Death”). These merciless figures may be internal or they may
involve the people around you, seen as pitiless, mocking,
superior. Remember that fear and guilt and persecuting,
mocking figures are your own hallucinations. Your own guilt
machine. Your personality is a collection of
thought-patterns and void. It cannot be harmed or injured.
“Swords cannot pierce it, fire cannot burn it.” Free
yourself from your own hallucinations. In reality there is
no such thing as the Lord of Death, or a justice-dispensing
god or demon or spirit. Act so as to recognize


Recognize that you are in the Third
Bardo. Meditate upon your ideal symbol. If you do not know
how to meditate, then merely analyze with great care the
real nature of that which is frightening you: “Reality” is
nothing but a voidness (Dharma-Kaya). That voidness is not
of the voidness of nothingness, but a voidness at the true
nature of which you feel awed, and before which your
consciousness shines more clearly and lucidly. [That is
the state of mind known as “Sambhoga-Kaya.” In that state,
you experience, with unbearable intensity, Voidness and
Brightness inseparable – the Voidness bright by nature and
the Brightness inseparable from the Voidness – a state of
the primordial or unmodified consciousness, which is the
Adi-Kaya. And the power of this, shining unobstructedly,
will radiate everywhere; it is the Nirmana-Kaya.


These refer to the fundamental
Wisdom Teachings of the Bardo Thodol. In all Tibetan systems
of yoga, realization of the Voidness is the one great aim.
To realize it is to attain the unconditioned Dharma-Kaya, or
“Divine Body of Truth,” the primordial state of
uncreatedness, of the supra-mundane All-Consciousness. The
Dharma-Kaya is the highest of the three bodies of the Buddha
and of all Buddhas and beings who have perfect
enlightenment. The other two bodies are the Sambhoga-Kaya or
“Divine Body of Perfect Endowment” and the Nirmana-Kaya or
“Divine Body of Incarnation.” Adi-Kaya is synonymous with
Dharma-Kaya. The Dharma-Kaya is primordial, formless
Essential Wisdom; it is true experience freed from all error
or inherent or accidental obscuration. It includes both
Nirvana and Sangsara, which are polar states of
consciousness, but in the realm of pure consciousness
identical. The Sambhoga-Kaya embodies, as in the five Dhyani
Buddhas, Reflected or Modified Wisdom; and the Nirmana-Kaya
embodies, as in the Human Buddhas, Practical or Incarnate
Widom. All enlightened beings who are reborn in this or any
other world with full consciousness, as workers for the
betterment of their fellow creatures, are said to be
Nirmana-Kaya incarnates. Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup, the
translator of the Bardo Thodol, held that the Adi-Buddha,
and all deities associated with the Dharma-Kaya, are not to
be regarded as personal deities, but as personifications of
primordial and universal forces, laws or spiritual
influences. “In the boundless panorama of the existing and
visible universe, whatever shapes appear, whatever sounds
vibrate, whatever radiances illuminate, or whatever
consciousnesses cognize, all are the play of manifestation
in the Tri-Kaya, the Three-fold Principle of the Cause of
All Causes, the Primordial Trinity. Impenetrating all, is
the All-Pervading Essence of Spirit, which is Mind. It is
uncreated, impersonal, self-existing, immaterial and
indestructible.” The Tri-Kaya is the esoteric trinity and
corresponds to the exoteric trinity of Buddha, the
Scriptures and the Priesthood (or your own divinity, this
manual and your companions).


If the voyager is struggling with
guilt and penance hallucinations, the Instructions for
Judgment Visions may be read.


V. Sexual Visions


Sexual visions are extremely
frequent during the Third Bardo. You may see or imagine
males and females copulating. [According to Jung.
(“Psychological Commentary” to The Tibetan Book of the Dead,
Evans-Wentz edition, p. xiii), “Freud’s theory is the first
attempt made in the West to investigate, as if from below,
from the animal sphere of instinct the psychic territory
that corresponds in Tantric Lamaism to the Sidpa Bardo.” The
vision described here, in which the person sees mother and
father in sexual intercourse, corresponds to the “primal
scene” in psychoanalysis. At this level, then, we begin to
see a remarkable convergence of Eastern and Western
psychology. Note also the exact correspondence to the
psychoanalytic theory of the Oedipus Complex.] This
vision may be internal or it may involve the people around
you. You may hallucinate multi-person orgies and experience
both desire and shame, attraction and disgust. You may
wonder what sexual performance is expected of you and have
doubts about your ability to perform at this

When these visons occur, remember to
withhod yourself from action or attachment. Have faith and
float gently with the stream. Trust in the unity of life and
in your companions.


If you attempt to enter into your
old ego because you are attracted or repulsed, if you try to
join or excape from the orgy you are hallucinating, you will
re-enter on an animal or neurotic level. If you become
conscious of “malness,” hatred of the father together with
jealousy and attraction towards the mother will be
experienced; if you become conscious of “femaleness,” hatred
of the mother together with attraction and fondness for the
father is experienced.


It is perhaps needless to say that
this kind of self-centered sexuality has little in common
with the sexuality of transpersonal experiences. Physical
union can be one expression or manifestation of cosmic


Visions of sexual union may
sometimes be followed by visions of conception – you may
actually visualize the sperm uniting with the ovum – , of
intra-uterine life and birth through the womb. Some people
claim to have re-lived their own physical birth in
psychedelic sessions and occasionally confirming evidence
for such claims has been put forward. Whether this is so or
not may be left as a question to be decided by empirical
evidence. Sometimes the birth visions will be clearly
symbolic – e.g., emergence from a cocoon, breaking out of a
shell, etc.


Whether the birth vision is
constructed from memory or fantasy, the psychedelic voyager
should try to recognize the signs indicating the type of
personality that is being reborn.


The Instructions for Sexual Visions
may be read to the voyager who is struggling with sexual


VI. Methods for Preventing the


Although many confrontations and
recognition points have been given, the person may be
ill-prepared and still be wandering back to game reality. It
is of advantage to postpone the return for as long as
possible, thus maximizing the degree of enlightenment in the
subsequent personality. For this reason four meditative
methods are given for prolonging the ego-loss state. They
are (1) meditation on the Buddha or guide; (2) concentration
on good games; (3) meditation on illusion; and (4)
meditation on the void. See the Four Methods of Preventing
Re-entry. Each one attempts to lead the voyager back to the
First Bardo central stream of energy from which he has been
separated by game involvements. One may ask how these
meditative methods, which seem difficult for the ordinary
person, can be effective. The answer given in the Tibetan
Bardo Thodol is that due to the increased suggestibility and
openness of the mind in the psychedelic state these methods
can be used by anyone, regardless of intellectual capacity,
or proficiency in meditation.

VII. Methods of Choosing the
Post-Session Personality


Choosing the post-session ego is an
extremely profound art and should not be undertaken
carelessly or hastily. One should not return fleeing from
hallucinated tormentors. Such re-entry will tend to bring
the person to one of the three lower levels. One should
first banish the fear by visualizing one’s protective figure
or the Buddha; then choose calmly and

The limited foreknowledge available
to the voyager should be used to make a wise choice. In the
Tibetan tradition each of the levels of game-existence is
associated with a particular color and also certain
geographical symbols. These may be different for
twentieth-century Westerners. Each person has to learn to
decode his own internal road map. The Tibetan indicators may
be used as a starting point. The purpose is clear: one
should follow the signs of the three higher types and shun
those of the three lower. One should follow light and
pleasant visions and shun dark and dreary ones.


The world of saints (devas) is said
to shine with a white light and to be preceded by visions of
delightful temples and jewelled mansions. The world of
heroes (asuras) has a green light and is signalled by
magical forests and fire images. The ordinary human world
has a yellow light. Animal existence is foreshadowed by a
blue light and images of caves and deep holes in the earth.
The world of neurotics or unsatisfied spirits has a red
light and visions of desolate plains and forest wastes. The
hell world emits a smoke-colored light and is preceded by
sounds of wailing, visions of gloomy lands, black and white
houses and black roads along which you have to


Use your foresight to choose a good
post-session robot. Do not be attracted to your old ego.
Whether you choose to pursue power, or status, or wisdom, or
learning, or servitude, or whatever, choose impartially,
without being attracted or repelled. Enter into game
existence with good grace, voluntarily and freely. Visualize
it as a celestial mansion, i.e., as an opportunity to
exercise game-ecstasy. Have faith in the protection of the
deities and choose. The mood of complete impartiality is
important since you may be in error. A game that appears
good may later turn out to be bad. Complete impartiality,
freedom from want or fear, ensure that a maximally wise
choice is made.


As you return you see spread out
before you the world, your former life, a planet full of
fascinating objects and events. Each aspect of the return
trip can be a delightful discovery. Soon you will be
descending to take your place in worldly events. The key to
this return voyage is simply this: take it easy, slowly,
naturally. Enjoy every second. Don’t rush. Don’t be attached
to your old games. Recognize that you are in the re-entry
period. Do not return with any emotional pressure.
Everything you see and touch can glow with radiance. Each
moment can be a joyous discovery.


Here end the Third Bardo, The Period
of Re-Entry