Chapter One – Devatma Shakti – Yoga Shri Peeth

Shakti (Kundalini) Divine Power
. by Swami Vishnu Tirtha
Maharaj, with Forward by Mahamahopadhyaya Gopinath Kaviraj,
J.A., Formerly Principal, Government Sanksrit College,

Swami Vishnu Tirtha

Holiness Shree Swami Vishnu

 Book Cover

Chapter I



*Indissoluble is the Absolute
Brahman, and His Self aspect is called the Adhyatma. The
creative (dynamic) aspect of Bhootabhava called Visarga, the
Creation, is His Work.

Bk. Gita, ch. 8, verse


Absolute, Adhyatma and Adhibhoota

According to the philosophy of Gita,
in the verse quoted above there are defined 4 aspects of
God, viz.,

(1) Parambhava, the Absolute aspect
called Brahman,

(2) Adhyatmabhava, the Self aspect,

(3) the Bhootabhava, the Creative
aspect, and

(4) the Visargabhava, the

The Absolute is so called because
the next two are correlated to each other, and the first is
not so related. Absolute is the unmanifested Avyakta form,
whereas the second and third forms are respectively the
subjective and objective sides of His coming into
manifestation. The subjective Adhyatmabhava shines as His
own self and is static, the objective Bhootabhava creates
and as such is dynamic. For instance, a person in trance or
deep meditation loses all consciousness of his own self and
that of his surroundings, he knows not what he is doing, but
when the same person is at work he is conscious of his
personal existence and is also cognisant of the work in
hand. In trance his consciousness had merged into his
absolute self, but when at work both the subjective
consciousness of his own and the objective consciousness of
his capability for work revive simultaneously. During trance
consciousness reverts to absoluteness, and at the time of
action it comes into manifestation as Adhyatma, the
subjective and as creative Bhootabhava, the objective. When
a person works, his creative faculty takes up the form of
energy, which is the direct product of his creative
consciousness, but it does not itself possess any
consciousness and therefore needs continuous attention for
its proper direction and best utilization from the
subjective side. Similarly from the Bhootabhava of Brahman
emanates the cosmic energy which prior to manifestation is
the Avyakta Prakriti -(unmanifested creative -principle) of
the Samkhya Philosophy and on coming into manifestation
takes up the different forms both on the psychic and the
physical planes., In Gita ‘ch. 8, verses 17 to 21 Lord
Krishna says:

“Those who know about the Creator’s
days and nights declare that His clay extends over a period
of one thousand cycles (4,320,000,000, years comprising 1000
cycles of the four ages of Satya, Dwapara, Treta, and Kali),
and His night thereafter follows of equal length. With the
dawn of His day all manifestations come into being from the
Avyakta and with the setting in of night they dissolve back
into that very Avyakta. This whole, creation having thus
been created over and over again dissolves with the coming
of night automatically and oh Partha! come into being with
the coming in of day. Higher than the said Avyakta (the
unmanifested cosmic energy) there is yet another Avyakta
(the Brahman unmanifested) the ever eternal That. He does
not come to destruction on the dissolution of all beings;
hence is called Akshara, the indissoluble, Him they call the
ultimate goal of realization, whence on attainment souls
return not, that plane of the Absolute is Mine.”

Note: Bhootabhava.
and Visargabhava have been here used as separate terms to
denote the Causal and the created aspects for a clear


The terms Sat and Asat are, also
used in the Vedic and later literature for the Adhyatmabhava
and Bhootabhava aspects respectively. The Absolute
transcends both. Sat denotes positive existence and Asat
implies the negative – the emanating existence. As Adhyatma,
the Absolute becomes effulgent and is therefore the Real
(Sat), whereas the creative aspect is not a separate
existence; but only an apparent one and as such is only a
negative existence (Asat) Transmutations and transformations
of the cosmic energy being mere superficialities of names
and forms, constitute the whole creation. Asat is also named
Avidya, ie., negative knowledge in relation to the positive
or subjective knowledge of Brahman. The term Sat being a
relative term including by implication the sense of Asat.
Sat is defined as Avidyashabalam

Brahman, i.e., Brahman specified or
in relation to Avidya.

Sir John Woodrofe has named the two
aspects as Static and Dynamic. Reals respectively. The
Static Real or Adhyatmabhava never changes and eternally and
incessantly radiates Power, Knowledge and Bliss. This aspect
is represented by the Indian mythologists as – the male
aspect of God. The creative Bhootabhava must necessarily
function as Energy in the dynamic sense ; as the word energy
gives impression of an inanimate power and the sanskrit term
Bhootabhava or the creative aspect conveys the, idea of
living consciousness with active power, the, latter is
repesented as a female divinity. God and His Power, the two,
are, though inseparably one like the opposite charges of
electricity, distinct but co-existent.

The idea of the Absolute is as old
as the Vedas. See Rigveda, ch. 10, verse 1, of the Nasadiya

Neither Asat there was, nor Sat
there was then, Neither was motion, nor the heavens that are

What covered ? -darkness ? whose
governance ? – Ambhas* ?

What existed then ? The deep and-
profound, Absolute.

Gita also defines Brahman as the
beginningless, neither Sat nor Asat. Shrimad Bhagwat Puran,
vide 2-9-32 also reads in the same way :

“I alone existed only before with
neither sat nor asat, but the Absolute, later what sprang
forth was I and what is left over that too am

* The word Ambhas used here means
water. Decidedly waters were not the first creation. The
first cosmic principle is some very fine substance described
here as Ambha, i.e., waters. Scidence informs that the
fundamental unit of the physical universe is a positively
electriified nucleus of the hydrogen atom, which is called
Proton. Hydrogen, a major constitutient unit of water
(H2O), in its nuclear state forming protons is
perhaps the same as Ambhas (waters) of the

How the Absolute, the indissoluble
dissolves into Sat and Asat – the positive and negative, has
ever remained shrouded, in mystery. All speculations, have
failed to come to a definite solution. The great
philosophers of the past and the present have advanced
theories after theories and have built philosophies over
philosophies, but have ultimately had to confess their
inability to solve the ever unsolved problem The question
has over and again been repeated and, its answer variously
attempted, but a ‘but’ has always been confronting all the
great thinkers and the question is still unanswered, and
challenges all thinkers to come in future. Rigveda hints at
this defeat of man boldly as follows vide verses 6-7 of the
Nasadiya Sukta referred to above. There it is

“Who does verily know, who here
could say

When came forth, how this

After, are born gods of this

Who knows how it came into

This creation how sprang

If it is supported or

Who its supervisor is in heavens

Oh! He verily knows and knows


Electronic theory of creation:

From what is seen on this globe it
can be universally assumed that the cosmic existence is a
display of two forces, animate and inanimate. To a
materialist life has no existence independent of matter,
which in one of its phases is supposed to evolve
consciousness called life, there exists therefore no God, no
Soul. What is matter ? Modern scientists define matter as
some substance – lifeless no doubt, which takes up the form
of all solids, liquids and gases, and can never be
destroyed. All chemical compounds are supposed to be an
aggregate of ultimately small particles called molecules,
which can further be decomposed into a number of atoms. Atom
is the smallest particle of an element, and molecule is the
smallest particle of a compound. Chemistry has found out a
number of elementary substances, the simplest known
constituents of all compound substances, they are named
elements, and the smallest particles of these elements are
called atoms. Again all the different kinds of atoms can be
broken or dissolved through Radio-activity into another
class of still smaller particles, which are made up of
electrons with a proton at the centre and they form a single
class of substance. Therefore the first fundamental form of
matter is a Proton, the fundamental unit of the physical
universe. Proton is a positively charged atom of Hydrogen
with electricity serving as a nucleus with varying number of
Electrons revolving round it. Each Electron is a particle
with a negative charge of electricity in mass less than, a
thousandth part of an atom of Hydrogen. Electron is not of
matter as the term may be understood to signify, but is a
granulated-particle of negative charge of electricity.
Electrons with a Proton at the centre form one particle, and
such particles build up the whole physical universe.

If the theory of evolution of life
from matter were accepted, these particles must be supposed
to be possessed of a third charge of Life, co-existent with
the charges of electricity, because no animate organism can
possibly be evolved out of mere lifeless electrically
charged atoms of Hydrogen, If “Animus” is not existent
there. Something cannot come out of nothing: Therefore we
are led to believe that the fundamental electronic particles
are formed of some cosmic energy possessing life, it may
either reflect life or is itself a form of the
life-principle. All chemical, physical or organic changes do
not create matter, they simply imply a change of form and
composition. The fundamental particles remain as such, no
matter how they combine in the course of the multifarious
creative process through changes in their juxtapositions.
Before creation comes into being the vast, expanse of these
electronic particles forms an ocean of a substance, perhaps
the same as Ambhas of the Vedas emanating from the
Adhyatmabhava of the Almighty, i.e., His Bhootabhaova on the
physical plane. Vedas have described it as water perhaps
because of the nuclear Hydrogen, a major constituent of


Samkhya Philosophy

Besides the materialistic view there
is a second school of thought, which believes in separate
existence of both life and the lifeless: This is the view
accepted by the average man. According to this view life
principle is an independent existence, it is invisible,
eternal, indissoluble and unchanging, but its reflection on
the material plane is visible and looks changing at
different phases of Nature shining forth at different planes
of evolution. Life is therefore compared with light which is
in fact by itself not visible to sight but reflects every
object it falls upon, thereby making its own presence felt
and the reflected surface visible, intensity of reflection
depending on the reflector. Material organisms reflecting
life are called living beings classified under different
heads of vegetable and animal life. Again the reflection of
life is on both planes – physical and psychic. i.e.,
pertaining to mind. According to the Indian psychologist the
psychic plane is also of the, same substance as the physical
one, only finer and subtler, both being different strata of
the same one cosmic energy.

Consciousness, mind, intelligence
and perceptions are caused by the reflection of the life
principle (chit) or chitta usually translated into the
English language as mind-stuff, a product of the fundamental
creative energy, the physical elements are also the products
of the same energy, but grosser than chitta. Therefore to
the Indian mind the psychic, and physical are not,
substantially different. To a westerner this would sound
odd, but when we have once come to the conclusion that
physical objects are phenomena qf some energy, it becomes
easy to understand that psychic principles are also finer
forms of the same energy and as such mind-stuff is
essentially as much of the same substance as ether, air,
liquids and solids. This is the view held by the Samkhya
philosophy, one of the six schools of Indian

The Samkhya philosophy declares that
the first principle of which the whole universe is the
product exists in its original state as Avyakta, i.e., in
unmanifested form, its first manifestation is called Mahat
the Great. This foremost manifestation may be explained as
the cosmic mind-stuff or intelligence. Mahat reflects the
life principle, which is also otherwise Avyakta. This
reflection of life appears as Ahamkar, i.e., the cosmic
consciousness (ego). The cosmic mind-stuff and the reflected
consciousness form the cosmic mind. The static Avyakta is
thus set in motion and in other words becomes dynamic. As
motion implies relativity, inertia is the necessary reaction
and therefore Mahat automatically and simultaneously
manifests two opposite forces Inertia called Tamoguna and
activity called Rajoguna, the first acts as a retarding,
force and the second as an acceleratory force. Life
reflected on Mahat imparts to it a third attribute of peace
called Sattwaguna. As these three gunas come into play on
the very first plane of manifestation, they are regarded as
inherent in Nature including both animate and inanimate
spheres. The physical forces are all governed predominantly
by inertia and motion.

The next step in the process of
creation is therefore three sided. Mind is the effect of
Sattwaguna predominating, Sattwa mixed with rajoguna
produces five senses of perception and Rajoguna produces the
five organs of action. Rajoguna with Tamoguna predominating
gives rise to five states of matter, viz., ethereal,
gaseous, of heat, liquids and solids. Thus the Samkhya
philosphy enumerates in all 24 principles of Prakriti
excluding the life-principle called Purusha.

Note that when one guna predominates
the other two are rendered feeble, though all the three
function simultaneously and jointly. Names of the 24
principles are given below succession:

Avyakta-Mahat-Ahamkar (sattwik,
rajasik, and tamasik) mind, perceptions of hearing, touch,
sight, taste and smell faculties ; powers of speech, grasp,
motion, sexuality and excretion; five Tanmatras, viz.; of
sound, touch, sight, taste and smell corresponding to the
above named five faculties of perceptions – ether, air,
fire, water and earth. Purusha, life-principle, is separate,
unaffected by forces of Prakriti – Asangoyam


Vedanta Philosophy

Again, there is a third school of
thought that disclaims -the theory of matter. According to
this school of thought Life is everything, the Creator and
the creation, both are one without a second ; Life a is both
the instrumental or efficient and the material cause of
creation. Light, reflection, and the reflector are all one.
Name given to this school is Vedanta. Meaning of the term is
`end of knowledge,’.

Again, there are many versions of
this philosophy; more important of them are Vivarta Vada of
Shankaracharya and Parinama Vada of Vallabhacharya and
Vishishtadvaita of Ramanujacharya. The first gives
prominence to the adhyatmabhava or the static aspect and the
others to the Bhootabhava or the dynamic creative

Vivarta is a word derived from the
root ‘Vrit’ to exist with ‘a prefix ‘Vi’ used ‘for
speciality and means ‘special sort of existence’. As the
prefix also implies perversion, Vivartavada in that sense
would mean – theory of perverted knowledge. But the vedic
language uses the term ‘samvarta.’ instead, a derivative
from the same root with the prefix ‘sam’ used in the sense
of the adverb ‘well’. See Rigveda Mandal, 10 Sukta 126
referred to verse 4.

That (absolute Brahman) as Desire in
the beginning manifested well (Himself) in relation to
(creation). Of Mind, energy (was) the first that came into
existence. The thoughtful seers with a wish to know, within
their hearts found out that it was in Asat a companion for

The word ‘Parinama’ means change of
form. According to Parinamavadins creation is a manifested
form of God. This school gives prominence to the dynamic
aspect. The term Parinama implies the dynamic aspect as
predominating, whereas the terms samvarta and vivarta
emphasize the static aspect. The verse of Rigveda just
quoted above makes it clear that Desire emanated from that
Sat, the Static Adhyatmabhava. The wise Seers regarded
‘Desire’ as Asat, a companion of Sat. Universal Mind with
its Power to create followed ‘Desire’.


Shaiva Philosophy

The Shaiva philosophers trace the
disruption of the Absolute into these two aspects through a
chain of 11 principles above Purusha, raising the number of
principles to 36. The Absolute, their Param Shiva, is above
desire. That desires ‘I may become many for creation’ as
says Chhandogya Upanishad (6-2-3), is the Adhyatmabhava and
His desire takes a number of steps for fulfilment. ‘I’ is
the first vibration (spanda) as they call it. The inception
of ‘I’ (aham) implies a second ‘this’ (Idam). ‘I’ is the
adhyatma Shiva bhava and ‘this’ the Shakti, the dynamic or
the creative aspect, but both are first in unmanifested
state. This stage was that of voidness called Niranjan. This
is called by them the phase of Shantydtitda (transcending
Peace). Next follows the third spanda or vibration called
Sada Shiva with predominance of the manifestation of
Adhydtma bhdva and next follows the spanda called Ishwar or
the Lord of His Power (Shakti) . This is the fourth
principle. At the fifth step the Lord becomes cognisant of
His Shakti, and hence the fifth vibration is the form of
Shuddha Vidyd (Pure knowledge).

These’ three are included within the
phase named Shanti (Peace). Next follows involution of ‘I’
within the folds. of Shakti and mixed knowledge ensues
giving effect to the sixth principle `Maya’, i.e.,
illusionary knowledge of limitation of Self within the
bounds of time, phases, cognizance, order or Laws of Nature,
and attachment, thus making the original Adhyatmabhava take
a narrow outlook of an individuality, and is called

The 7 principles from sixth to
twelfth, viz. maya, time, kala (phases), vidya (cognizance),
niyati (order), raga (attachment), and Purusha (an
individualised soul) are included under the third phase of
mixed, knowledge called Shuddhishuddha vidya – a mixture of
pure and impure knowledge. The involution of Bhootabhava
into the 24 principles of the Sakhya philosophy already
enumerated above completes the list. 23 of there are put
under the phase named Pratishtha and the last ‘earth’ under
the phase called Nivritti.

This fact should not be overlooked
that Self as Adhydtma does not undergo any change through
involutionary course of creation, but simply identifies
Himself at every phase with its isolated waves. The
Bhootabhava undergoes changes reflecting through the folds
of involution – the unchanged ‘I’.

The reader will now understand the
symbology of oval shaped Linger of Shiva which represents
the unchanging Adhyatmabhava fixed and immovable at the
centre with the dynamic Bhootabhava coiling round it, wihich
as it were weaves round Him coils of Nature symbolized as
serpentine coils of snakes. But the rays of life permeate
evervy fold and radiate out giving tinges and different
shades of light to each phase.

Shiva and Shakti of the Shaiva
philosophers are respectively the unmanifested Adhyatma and
Bhoota aspects of Gita or Sat and Asat of the Vedas.
Sadashiva is the manifested but in embryo or the seed form
with the two aspects as one grain. As Ishwar and Shuddha
vidya, the two aspects, become separate and distinct.
Sadashiva is therefore painted in the Puranas as Ardha
narishwar – half male and half femal. Through Maya and its
five-fold limitations of time, kala, vidya, niyati and raga
the Adhyatmabhava assumes an individualised position and
appears as individual soul whereas the Bhootabhava becomes
dead matter.

According to Shankaracharya, the
creative aspect is an illusionary and perverted look of the
Adhyatmabhava, as a snake appears in a rope, but to Vallabha
the Bhootabhava is a reality.



“Involution of life is what we call
creation ” is the summum bonum of the one life theory of
creation. It is therefore necessary to have a clear
understanding of the relative terms involution and
evolution. Every evolution presupposes a previous
involution. When it is said that Nature evolves
consciousness, it is so said on implied,assumption that the
evolved consciousness was lying involved in Nature.
Involution is therefore the first half of the cycle and
evolution the other half. When we wind up a watch we in fact
make the dynamic energy of out hands involved in its
potential form as a coiled spring, and when the spring
uncoils itself the energy lying there potentially begins to
be evolved out and becomes kinetic. When fuel or any,
combustible substance burns, heat is evolved out, and the
fuel turns to ashes or the combustible substance disappears
showing that the fuel or the combustible substance was but a
mass of heat accumulated in that form through some
involutionary process, which through combustion has taken an
evolutionary course. Therefore evolution is the reverse
transmutation of an effect into its cause and every cause
through every subsequent modification undergoes involution,
to take up the form of an effect. Nothing cannot create
something. Sequence of changes gives rise to a link of
causes and effects, which are in fact relatively so
connected with one another in a chain of differentiated
forms; the primary causal substance flowing as it were in a
stream of causation taking up different forms at different
stages of sequence. The superficial forms conceal under them
the primary causal substance, which becomes involved in a
variety of forms, whereas in the reverse order of change all
the affected forms begin to disappear and merge into their
immediate causes evolving more and more the true nature of
the primary causal substance which goes on shining more and
more gradually during the evolutionary course as the upward
half of the cycle nears the topmost. The original causal
substance is said to be then evolving to its original



It has been said above that the
first creative principle is the Bhootabhava, which emanates
from the Adhydtmabhdva. Now let us see the, nature of the
Vis argabhava. It has also been pointed out that the
Adhydtmabhdva is Life in the static form, which should be
understood as the -cosmic Life Radium. Radium is a rare
element that incessantly radiates an emanation which
successively disintegrates into radiums A, B, C, D, without
itself suffering any modification. In fact Adhyatmabhdva is
the perfect Radium in that sense, and the Adhydtmabhdva is a
Life Radium, because it eternally and incessantly radiates
life without itself suffering any loss or change. Now, the
first emanation is the Bhootabhava or Life in the dynamic
foam. The first is the : centre and the second its radii
ever shooting from it, forming a sphere’ whose circumference
is nowhere, or merges into infinity and the centre is
everywhere all over the creation.. The first is the soul and
the second the person of the creator. In the Vedic
literature the dynamic form of Life is named.Prc na.. Thus
Prdna is the dynamic Life energy as the first emanation of
the Adhyatmabhava and is the same as Bhootabhdva.

The Upanishadas declare:

“He created Prana: from Prana,
Shraddha, ether, air, light, water, earth, senses, mind,
Annam (eatables) from Annam Tapas, mantra, Lokas and in
Lokas names” (Pr. 6-4)

“From Him are born Prana, mind, and
all the sense-organs, ether, air, light, water and earth the
support of the universe.” (Mu. 2-1-3).


Let us now take the individual case
of an ordinary person. Everybody has a soul, which is the
source of all knowledge and every conscious and unconscious
activity. Every piece of knowledge springs up from that
fountainhead and all the creative faculties that make up the
person emanate from that very source. On the plane of
creation, the creative energy of a person takes up two,
directions, in one direction there is a succession of life
in the shape of fresh off-springs of his own species, of
which the parents are the material cause, and in the other
direction the products are material objects, of which the
person is the instrumental cause. In other words the Life
energy emanating from the soul manifests itself in both

A Yogi with higher mystic powers can
create living bodies and lifeless objects both direct with
his will power. Such miraculous powers were possessed by
prophets and sages. Miracles of Christ are well known to the
westerners. Again the life energy that can be commuted into
a physical force, is a phenomenon of daily experience. You
push a cart and let it go, the cart moves on for some time,
you impart to it a force, which primarily emanated, from
soul, but in the cart it takes up the form of a physical
force. The creative aspect of life has in fact got
transmuted on the physical plane. Similarly Prajapati, the
lord of creation desires, and His desire automatically sends
the Static Life into radiation and the Adhydtrablidva begins
to emit Bhootablvava. With the cessation of desire the
radiation would also stop, and the creation would revert to
its cause. For creation the radiating dynamic energy of
Bhootabhava begins to manifest and becomes simultaneously
the instrumental cause as Prava itself as well as the
material cause of the whole universe, manifesting both the
animate side of the world and its inanimate side. The
animate beings are therefore called in sanskrit ‘Praninah’,
,i.e.,possessed of Prana. The primary cause does not change
essence through transformations, the outer form that hides
its nature is a superficiality and an unreality.,
Bhootabhava on account of its inherent propensity for
creation enfolds itself from the highest Mahat to the lowest
earthly stone and gets involved in a variety of forms. The
creation of names and forms is therefore the work of
Bhootabhdva and is called Visarga.



The all-pervading Universal Prima is
called Hiranya-Durbin i.e. of Golden Womb. Shankaracharya In
his commentary on Brahma Sutras vide (2, 4,13);says, ‘the
divine &arta appearing universally and individually as
Hiranyagarbha is declared vibhoo—all-pervacling, not
the individualized Prana of living beings’, which are ants,
i.e.,, atomic. And Mahat is regarded His intellect.
Shankar’s commentary on Br. Sutra (1, 4, 1) reads,—’
what the intellect is of the first born Hiranyagarbha is the
ultimate support of the intellects of all individuals and is
called ‘Mahanatma’ – the same as Mahat. In the case of
Avyakta he expresses his views, vide his comment on (1, 4,
3) thus—’ if we were to regard as independent some
pre-existent fonn of the universe as its cause, we would be
accepting the Pradhan Karan theory of sem/diva theory of
creation with an independent Avyakta as the cause of the
creation. But by us the pre-creation form of the universe is
regarded as depending on God for its existence and not an
independent existence. And it must be so regarded. Real
indeed it is. Not without it God as Creator is proved.
Potentiality (for creation) cannot be proved in Him without
Shakti (Power). Of the nature of avidya (perverted knowledge
of losing sight of the Adhyatma under the cloak of
Bhootabhava) indeed that Power in seed form is denoted by
the word ‘Avyakta’ depending on God (for its existence),
mayamayee it is (so called on account of its capability of
assuming various strange forms as of magic), and is the
state cosmic sleep, mahasupti wherein the worldly souls lie
asleep, losing all knowledge of themselves. When it is said
Avyakta is finer than Mahat, Kath (1, 3, 11). thereby Mahat
is meant the intellect of ‘Hiranyagarbha.’, Hiranyagarbha
the same as Prajapati is, therefore, the Lord of creation or
creator with the Adhyatmabhava as His soul, and the
Bhootabhava and Visarga as His body. With his desire for
creation Prana Shakti begins to emanate a radiation of
Intelligence and knowledge charged with His creative Energy
which before the manifestation of desire existed within Him
as unmanifested Avyakta. His creative Energy – the
Bhootabhava during the involutionary course comes down to
the lower and lower planes till, the lowest is reached. As
Bhootabhava sometimes exits in the unmanifested stage, at
another comes into manifestation and gets under modification
or transformation, its aspect is destructible.

“Adhibhoota is the destructible
aspect, Purusha is the Adhidaiva, as Adhiyajna I only am
here in the body, Oh! the best of men.” (Gita,


Adhidaiva and Adhiyajna


For understanding Adhidaiva and
Adhiyajna aspects, one has first to grasp the meaning of the
words Purusha and Yajna respectively, because it is said
that Purusha is adhidaiva and as adhiyajna it is the God
residing in the body of every one. Purusha is one who lives
in an abode. ( Purau shete iti purushah).) ‘Puri’ or an
abode is used, for both the body and the universe,
therefore, the term is used for both God as well as for the
individual soul. In Gita ch. 15, verses, 16, 17, I8, Lord
Krishna tells Arjuna that in the world there are two
Purushas-destructible and indestructible, the former
includes all living beings, and Kutastha is called Akshar
the indestructible. Higher, is another Purusha. known as
Paramatma, who having entered the three Lokas (planes of
existence), protects them all as Lord who suffers no change.
As He transcends the destructible and is better than the
indestructible, he is known, by the people and the Vedas as
Purushottam, the best of all the purushas. Bodies of all
living beings are puris i.e., abodes for soul to. ‘reside.
Soul is therefore called. Purusha. It has been shown above
that life exists in two aspects as Adhyatmabhava and as
consciousness which is the reflection of Prana. As Adhyatma
it is Soul and as Prana it is its radiation, which shines in
all living beings as consciousness or life. The Adhyatma
aspect is called Kutastha. The word kuta means a heap, i.e.,
piled or concentrated, the word Kutastha denotes the
life-principle, concentrated as it were, that stands behind
the involutionary Maya, unaffected by it. Kathopranisl ad
defines purusha vide, verse (6, 17) as the inner self of the
size of a thumb always permeating the heearts of men, one
should separate Him from the body patiently like the stem of
a grass from its covering. Know this to be pure and

Purusha is therefore the
life-principle as different from body and life reflected in
the body. Kutastha means the indissouluble and immutable
Self, the Adhyatma aspect bearing an indivudualized
appearance and the destructable Kshar purusha is the
reflected life which is said to die and decay, a mere
radiation of the former. God Himself is also a Purusha
because he resides in and protects the body cosmic. He is
the sould of the universe, the soul of all souls and the
unchanging Lord of all. Adhidaiva is therefore the divine
aspect present both inside the body and outside in the whole

Adhiyajna is that apsect of God that
pertains to yajna, i.e., who confers the fruites of all
actions and dwells in the body of every person. Yajna is an
offering to God. All our actions done as a token of service
to God come under the definition of a yajna. He as such is
the bestower of the fruits of our actions.

“Who having entered into the bodies
of all living beings, enjoys with them and is the support of
all, His name is Vishnu and as Adhiyajna He is the
(all-devouring) Time, Lord of all changes.”

Synopsis of the whole chapter can be
summarised thus: – Brahman is the Absolute, Adhyatma the
nucleus and Bhootabhava as its emanation. Bhootabhava
involved is Visarga the creation, on both the physical and
psychic planes, with varied degrees of evolution of the
psychic plane, which reflects life, i.e. prana a radiation
of the Adhyatmabhava. Universal Prana controls the whole
universe as a master or Lord of the universe, and individual
prana enters the body identifying itself with the body and
mind giving the adhyatma an individualized


The Buddhist View

The Buddhist Philosophers ignored
the Adhyatmabhava, which never changes but radiates on, and
based their philosophies on the dynamic Bhootabhava only.
Therefore according to their ‘Kshanik Vijnana Vada’ every
object, physical and psychic, and even life, is transient
and ever changing. And their ultimate goal is Nirvana to
Shunya – complete Voidness, which is probably the same as
the Absolute of Vedanta, which regards the Absolute as Purna
and not Shunya.

“That Brahman which is absolutely
subtle is although not Voidness but when thought of is like
Voidness. Him the Bhaktas call Bhagwan Vasudeva.”


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